Conclusions are the last thing most readers will remember about a paper. Conclusions re-emphasize the main thesis and leave the impression of completeness. The conclusion joins with the introduction to "frame" the body of the paper. The difficulty of conclusions arises because many writers feel they have already said everything. However, it is important to remember that a conclusion is not just a summary of your main points. Instead, conclusions should provide your readers with a sense of closure and leave them with something new to think about.
Conclusions can take many shapes, some of which might be discipline-specific. For example, some disciplines require that the last issue addressed in a paper will be the implications of the research you have done for either further study or practical applications. The list below provides other ideas for conclusions. A conclusion might:
Choose among these or other options carefully. Each of these choices will leave your reader with a different sense of your paper as a whole. Decide upon a conclusion strategy that best fits with your purpose for writing the paper.